Norvasc, Caduet, Exforge, Lotrel, Tekamlo, Tribenzor, Twynsta, Amturnide diltiazem Cartia, Cardizem nifedipine Nifedical, Procardia verapamil Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan and others. Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors delay the digestion of sugars and starches. Johns Hopkins IntelliHealth lets you search its U. S. Pharmacopeia database for drug information. This Web page lists the classes of these medications currently available, the brand and generic names the companies marketing them in the United States, and the Web sites of those companies. Meglitinide stimulates insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas.
Avoid drinking alcohol. It can lower your blood sugar. Type II, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes is the most common type. It results when the body produces insufficient insulin to meet the body's needs, or when the cells of the body have become resistant to insulin's effect. While all Type I diabetics develop symptoms, only a third of those who have develop symptoms. Many people suffer from a mild form of the disease and are unaware of it. Often it's diagnosed only after complications are detected. Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
ULN, and greater than 3 times the ULN occurred in 14%, 6%, and 3%, respectively, of Precose-treated patients as compared to 7%, 2%, and 1%, respectively, of placebo-treated patients. Although these differences between treatments were statistically significant, these elevations were asymptomatic, reversible, more common in females, and, in general, were not associated with other evidence of liver dysfunction. In addition, these serum transaminase elevations appeared to be dose related. There have been rare postmarketing reports of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis associated with the use of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, including Precose. Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis may present with symptoms of diarrhea, mucus discharge, rectal bleeding, and constipation. Complications may include pneumoperitoneum, volvulus, intestinal obstruction, intussusception, intestinal hemorrhage, and intestinal perforation. If pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is suspected, discontinue Precose and perform the appropriate diagnostic imaging.
There are many reasons why people have trouble taking their medicine. Your doctor may want to check the amount of digoxin in your blood and may need to change the dose of your digoxin. The Geriatric Drug Review: Diabetes by Alan Lukazewski, Registered Pharmacist and Certified Diabetes Educator, is a valuable resource for anyone over 50 who has diabetes. PRECOSE” on one side and “25” on the other side. During treatment initiation and dose titration see below one-hour postprandial plasma glucose may be used to determine the therapeutic response to PRECOSE and identify the minimum effective dose for the patient. Thereafter, glycosylated hemoglobin should be measured at intervals of approximately three months. The therapeutic goal should be to decrease both postprandial plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels to normal or near normal by using the lowest effective dose of PRECOSE, either as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylureas, insulin or metformin.
American Diabetes Association. "Diabetes Basics. Take the missed dose as soon as you remember be sure to take it with a meal. If it has been longer than 15 minutes since you started your meal, you may still take acarbose but it may be less effective than taking it with the first bite of the meal. Do not take acarbose between meals, and do not take extra medicine to make up a missed dose. Because of its mechanism of action, Precose when administered alone should not cause hypoglycemia in the fasted or postprandial state. Sulfonylurea agents or insulin may cause hypoglycemia. Because Precose given in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin will cause a further lowering of blood glucose, it may increase the potential for hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, and no increased incidence of hypoglycemia was observed in patients when Precose was added to metformin therapy. Oral glucose dextrose whose absorption is not inhibited by Precose, should be used instead of sucrose cane sugar in the treatment of mild to moderate hypoglycemia. Sucrose, whose hydrolysis to glucose and fructose is inhibited by Precose, is unsuitable for the rapid correction of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia may require the use of either intravenous glucose infusion or glucagon injection. This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Precose may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine. What happens if I overdose Precose? You also may have heard it called atherosclerosis. Animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, however, there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus. FDA in 1995. This drug acts by lowering cells' resistance to insulin, a common problem in Type II diabetes. Keep all medical appointments. Use Precose as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions. Josse tells WebMD. "If it is taken properly, the amount of gas and wind is either a small nuisance or no problem. For those that tolerate it, this drug is a great benefit. It will be used to prevent diabetes and it will be effective and it will be safe. When taking this medicine, low blood sugar can be treated with except table sugar or regular soda pop, which will not work. Adverse events have not been observed in animal reproduction studies. Less than 2% of an oral dose of acarbose is absorbed systemically, which should limit fetal exposure.
Know the signs of low blood sugar hypoglycemia and how to recognize them: headache, hunger, weakness, sweating, tremors, irritability, or trouble concentrating. If the prescribed diet is not observed, the intestinal side effects may be intensified. Sulfonylurea agents or insulin may cause hypoglycemia. Precose given in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin will cause a further lowering of blood glucose and may increase the potential for hypoglycemia. If hypoglycemia occurs, appropriate adjustments in the dosage of these agents should be made. In women with diabetes, maternal hyperglycemia can be associated with congenital malformations as well as adverse effects in the fetus, neonate, and the mother ACOG 2005; ADA 2016c; Kitzmiller 2008; Metzger 2007. To prevent adverse outcomes, prior to conception and throughout pregnancy, maternal blood glucose and HbA 1c should be kept as close to target goals as possible but without causing significant hypoglycemia ACOG 2013; ADA 2016c; Blumer 2013; Kitzmiller 2008. Agents other than acarbose are currently recommended to treat diabetes in pregnant women ACOG 2013; Blumer 2013. When diabetic patients are exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a temporary loss of control of blood glucose may occur. At such times, temporary insulin therapy may be necessary. Diabetes patients - Carry an ID card at all times that says you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar levels as directed by your doctor. If they are often higher than they should be and you take Precose exactly as prescribed, tell your doctor. Take this medication by mouth, usually 3 times a day at the start with the first bites of each main meal or as directed by your doctor. Oral hypoglycemic agents or "diabetes pills" are used to treat type 2 diabetes. They are not insulin. Diabetes medicines work best for people who are being active and eating healthy foods. FDA's Office of Device Evaluation. But he adds, "Tight control isn't easy because it requires multiple glucose measurements. The Food and Drug Administration approved Welchol for type 2 diabetes in January 2008. The FDA had previously approved it in 2000 for controlling high LDL cholesterol. Welchol is the only approved medication for both conditions. It is also one of the few approved diabetes drugs that doesn't generally cause weight gain. Khardori, R, MD. "Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Glyset miglitol US prescribing information. olmesartan
So diabetics were understandably enthusiastic when a noninvasive glucose sensor monitoring device was developed. It doesn't require a finger prick but instead uses infrared technology to measure blood glucose. But after reviewing data from the device's manufacturer, the Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Advisory Panel of FDA's Medical Devices Advisory Committee decided more data were needed to ensure the device's safety and effectiveness. The May 1998 issue of Diabetes Wellness Letter, included another article about new hypoglycemic agents, "Beyond Sulfonylureas: The New Drugs for Blood Glucose Control. If you don't have these reliable forms of glucose, eat some honey or drink a glass of orange juice to quickly raise your level. Tell your doctor right away about the reaction and the use of this product. Managing the diet is easier now because of food labeling regulations that went into effect in 1994. Diabetes is diagnosed by measuring blood sugar levels. This can begin with a sampled for glucose because excess sugar in the blood spills over into the urine. Further testing involves taking blood samples after an overnight fast. FDA pregnancy category B. Acarbose is not expected to harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Permission to link this site to yours is not needed. The most frequently reported adverse events include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatulence. Symptoms of high blood sugar include blurred vision; drowsiness; dry mouth; flushed, dry skin; fruit-like breath odor; increased urination; ketones in urine; loss of appetite; stomachache, nausea, or vomiting; tiredness; troubled breathing rapid and deep; unconsciousness; or unusual thirst. In a one-year safety study, during which patients kept diaries of gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal pain and diarrhea tended to return to pretreatment levels over time, and the frequency and intensity of flatulence tended to abate with time. The increased gastrointestinal tract symptoms in patients treated with Precose are a manifestation of the mechanism of action of Precose and are related to the presence of undigested carbohydrate in the lower GI tract. Acarbose is only part of a complete treatment program that may also include diet, exercise, weight control, regular blood sugar testing, and special medical care. Follow your doctor's instructions very closely. In case of overdose, do not eat or drink anything containing carbohydrates for the next 4 to 6 hours. This depends upon the individual, including any other health conditions that are present and whether complications of diabetes have developed. Because of the development of complications, studies have shown that on average, those with type 1 diabetes have a life expectancy that is still 12 years below the average. Other studies have showed that type 2 diabetes also reduces average life expectancy. It's important to remember that these are only averages based upon people who have had diabetes in the past and may be affected by including people who do not receive medical care or who have poor control over their diabetes. Advances in modern treatments are likely to reduce these gaps, and taking steps to make sure your diabetes is well controlled and leading a healthy lifestyle can further reduce the risk of death from complications. There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with Precose or any other anti-diabetic drug. generic equivalent for atorvastatin atorvastatin
Those who are taking a beef or pork insulin and doing well -- you don't necessarily change the type of insulin they take. But for new patients I see, I would start them on human insulin. This product is not a substitute for a proper diet. Remember that it is best to get your from healthy foods. Maintain a well- and follow any dietary guidelines as directed by your doctor. What other drugs will affect acarbose Precose? Acarbose has no inhibitory activity against lactase and consequently would not be expected to induce lactose intolerance. WebMD User Reviews should not be considered as medical advice and are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences may be a helpful health information resource but they are never a substitute for professional medical advice from a qualified healthcare provider. Gutman says FDA appreciates the need for noninvasive glucose monitors and is anxious to work with companies early in the development of these devices. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health has implemented an expedited review program for devices like noninvasive glucose monitors so items that may be in the interest of public health can be made available in an expedited way without compromising the devices' safety and effectiveness, he says. "Such expedited reviews are given precedence over routine reviews. PRECOSE and identify the minimum for the patient. Unlike sulfonylureas or insulin, an overdose of Precose will not result in hypoglycemia. An overdose may result in transient increases in flatulence, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort which shortly subside.
The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Drugs. Keep a recent prescription and your medical history with you. Be prepared for an emergency as you would normally. Make allowances for changing time zones and keep your meal times as close as possible to your usual meal times. Type 2 treatment: Treatment for type 2 is more complicated due to the fact that the body may produce enough insulin but not be able to use this insulin effectively. For many people with or early stage type 2, lifestyle modifications may be sufficient to control the problem. Patrick H. Bowen, MD, endocrinology section head at Atlanta's Emory University Clinic. Simple sugars include foods like fruit, juice, milk, honey, desserts, and candy. In last-ditch effort to help Ukraine, Obama deploys Rev. Sharpton and Rev. Quinolone Antibiotics: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Quinolone Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. fcard.info labetalol
Talk with your doctor or pharmacist about whether the dose of your other diabetic medications needs to be lowered. The information contained in the Truven Health Micromedex products as delivered by Drugs. It is not known whether acarbose passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using acarbose. The doses used in this study are the high doses linked to more intolerance. I have only two patients with diabetes who tolerate Precose. Another reason is patient preference. You may be more likely to have hyperglycemia high blood sugar if you are taking acarbose with other drugs that raise blood sugar. Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Severe. These medicines may interact and cause very harmful effects and are usually not taken together. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines. Pegvisomant: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345. Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately. Product labeling recommends that doctors start patients on lower doses to combat the problem. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to find out what you should do if you miss a meal. Misbin says. "Oral pills should be used in Type II diabetes only when diet and exercise are not effective. It's very common for patients who lose weight to lower their own blood sugar levels and come off the medicines. The problem is that it's very difficult to get patients to lose weight. purchase zyloprim overdose
Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and president of the American Diabetes Association, believes that most people simply don't understand the magnitude of the diabetes problem. "Diabetes is an increasingly common, potentially devastating, treatable yet incurable, lifelong disease. Thiazolidinedione makes the insulin the body is producing work better. Therefore, treatment of these patients with Precose is not recommended. Acarbose is used along with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Acarbose works by slowing the breakdown of starch carbohydrates from the food you eat into sugar, so that your blood sugar level does not rise as much after a meal. Food and Drug Administration approved the marketing of metformin in May 1995. Diarrhea, gas, upset stomach, constipation, or stomach pain may occur in the first few weeks of treatment as your body adjusts to this medication but usually improve with time. Follow your prescribed diet to help lessen these side effects. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. The dosage is based on your medical condition, weight, and response to therapy. Your dose may be gradually increased to determine the most effective dose for you. The manufacturer recommends that you do not take more than 300 milligrams per day. All medicines have side effects. But many people don't feel the side effects, or they are able to deal with them. Ask your pharmacist about the side effects of each medicine you take. Side effects are also listed in the information that comes with your medicine. Susan Sarandon: "I don't vote with my vagina.
Clinical Experience in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Monotherapy, or in Combination with Sulfonylureas, Metformin or Insulin: Precose was studied as monotherapy and as combination therapy to sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin treatment. The treatment effects on HbA1c levels and one-hour postprandial glucose levels are summarized for four placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized studies conducted in the United States in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The placebo-subtracted treatment differences, which are summarized below, were statistically significant for both variables in all of these studies. Actress Mary Tyler Moore battles it. Country singer Mark Collie has it. Rhythm and blues singer Pattie LaBelle was diagnosed with it recently. Avoid taking a digestive enzyme such as pancreatin, amylase, or lipase at the same time you take acarbose. These enzymes can make it harder for your body to absorb acarbose. Products that contain digestive enzymes include Arco-Lase, Cotazym, Donnazyme, Pancrease, Creon, and Ku-Zyme. Wellbutrin bupropion hydrochloride US prescribing information. Misbin describes as "a modified human insulin. This drug may be used as monotherapy, or in combination with other antidiabetic agents. There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis. Side effects may go away after you take the medicine for a while. Inzucchi SE, et al. 2012. Upjohn Inc. has been granted marketing rights to Bayer's miglitol for marketing in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand under the tradename Glyset. purchase cheapest diflucan mastercard europe
Pharmaceuticals, Inc. July, 2016. PRECOSE should be taken three times daily at the start with the first bite of each main meal. PRECOSE should be started at a low dose, with gradual dose escalation as described below, both to reduce gastrointestinal side effects and to permit identification of the minimum dose required for adequate glycemic control of the patient. If the prescribed diet is not observed, the intestinal side effects may be intensified. If strongly distressing symptoms develop in spite of adherence to the diabetic diet prescribed, the doctor must be consulted and the dose temporarily or permanently reduced. Severe allergic reactions rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; bloody stools; severe or persistent diarrhea or constipation; severe stomach pain; unusual bleeding or bruising. Patient may experience abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, or bloating. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of low blood sugar dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, tachycardia, confusion, increased hunger, or sweating or signs of liver problems dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice HCAHPS. MAO Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. buy probenecid skin cream
The combination also is used for people taking SFUs but are no longer getting the SFUs' full effect. Studies show that when you add Metformin to a regimen of an SFU, you get a treatment that is better than either drug used alone. Your doctor may want you to stop taking acarbose for a short time if you become ill, have a fever or infection, or if you have surgery or a medical emergency. Although drug treatment makes a difference to many diabetics and their quality of life, Cryer adds that current diabetes treatments are still "not ideal. If symptoms of high blood sugar occur, check your blood sugar level and then call your doctor for instructions. But it's not quite that simple. There may be a time when you need emergency help for a problem caused by your diabetes. You need to be prepared for these emergencies. It is a good idea to wear a medical identification ID bracelet or neck chain at all times. Also, carry an ID card in your wallet or purse that says that you have diabetes and a list of all of your medicines. If no further reduction in postprandial glucose or HbA1c is observed with titration to 100 mg three times a day, consider lowering the dose. The safety of Precose in pregnant women has not been established.
US media to GOP pool of candidates: 'Knowing what we know now, would you have had anything to do with the founding of the United States? These drugs combine two oral medications. These side effects usually lessen with time. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or promptly. It unfortunately has an interface that makes entering more than a few items tedious. Fluke to Congress: drill, baby, drill! Bari 2D, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation BARI 2 Diabetes, is a program to study whether, in patients with type 2 diabetes, initial treatment with angioplasty or bypass surgery is better than initial treatment with a medical program. At the same time, BARI 2D will compare two approaches to control blood sugar: providing insulin stimulating medication or providing medication that sensitizes the body to the available insulin. The Food and Drug Administration approved Januvia for type 2 diabetes on October 17, 2006, as both monotherapy and as add-on therapy to either of two other types of oral diabetes medications, metformin or thiazolidinediones. Januvia doesn't help people with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis. What is acarbose Precose? Will the groundprog be frightened by its own shadow and hide - or will there be another season of insane protests? Check your blood sugar carefully during times of stress, travel, illness, surgery or medical emergency, vigorous exercise, or if you drink alcohol or skip meals. These things can affect your glucose levels and your dose needs may also change. Do not change your medication dose or schedule without your doctor's advice. What's the life expectancy for a person with either type of diabetes? Because SFUs can become less effective after 10 or more years of use, other drugs often are needed. What is the most important information I should know about acarbose Precose? Many drugs can affect your blood sugar levels, making it more difficult to control your blood sugar. Before you start, stop, or change any medication, talk with your doctor or pharmacist about how the medication may affect your blood sugar. Check your blood sugar levels regularly as directed by your doctor. Tell your doctor about the results and of any symptoms of high or low blood sugar. Your doctor may need to adjust your anti-diabetic medication, exercise program, or diet. Consult WARNINGS section for additional precautions. bupropion online buy cheap
buy precose 40 mg online uk, order precose side, price precose sales, precose price reduction, does tesco precose, pharmacy price check precose, generic precose do, cheap precose level, buy precose powder, precose shop 24h reviews, buy precose no rx needed, express pharmacy precose price, generic precose price cvs, estimated precose, generic precose buy now visa, best price generic precose, precose generic release date, price precose compendium, cheap precose uk online, generic to precose, cvs brand generic precose, order precose comp, cheap precose online price, order generic precose pharmacy canada, canada precose buy online, generic precose when available, generic for precose medication, precose pill online, price of precose 10 mg, how to get precose in canada, pharmacy precose basket, order now online precose visa, precose order online pharmacy uk, generic name for precose, does target brand precose work, buy precose hawaii, cost precose reacoes, precose price target, price of precose, cheap precose online australia, buy precose shopping australia, precose store las vegas, order now precose store uk, precose mail order store canada, precose order mastercard, cost precose at walmart, cheapest precose purchase visa australia, precose price help, order precose overnight, where to get precose in toronto, is it legal precose online, buy precose medication, order cheapest precose pharmacy europe, precose order now payment uk, precose buy in usa, precose street price per pill, buy now precose tablets online, generic for precose side effects, precose soho, precose buy now visa otc, shop precose hygien, precose generic brand, precose compare prices, precose pills order online shopping, cheapest precose money order europe, precose buy usa, buy precose payment canada, precose purchase now online, shop precose price, cheapest precose purchase shopping usa, brand precose tablets, purchase cheapest precose online payment, buy precose junior, store precose tablet, precose pack generic, precose allergy, cheap precose from china, precose price in market, precose canada din, average cost of precose in cabo san lucas, order now online precose, cheapest precose buy shop europe, precose money order payment uk, order precose from pharmacy, cheap precose instrukcija, precose mail order otc, precose available australia, purchasing precose over the internet, order now precose online canada, purchase precose overdose, purchase cheapest precose mastercard europe, precose online buy cheap, buy precose skin cream, generic equivalent for precose
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. Once an effective and tolerated dosage is established, it should be maintained. PAD is one of the most significant health problems affecting older people with diabetes. Most people know PAD as "hardening of the arteries. silagra
Take acarbose with the first bite of a main meal, unless your doctor tells you otherwise. Precose was statistically significantly different from placebo at all doses. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your or local waste disposal company. This new class of drugs enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell, suppresses inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying.
Pharmaceuticals, Inc. July, 2015. Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource, but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately.
Precose arcarbose US prescribing information. Do not use table sugar or drink non-diet soda to relieve these symptoms because acarbose slows the breakdown of table sugar. Use: As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.